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国际学术期刊
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国际学术期刊
Assessing noxious gases of vessel operations in a potential Emission Control Area
发布时间:2014-3-2410:4:42来源:作者:Young-Tae Chang, Younghoon Roh, Hyosoo Park   

Young-Tae Changa,
Younghoon Roha,
Hyosoo Parkb



Highlights


•This study measures the emissions of noxious gases from vessel operations in ECA.
•Emissions are estimated by taking a bottom-up approach.
•Speed reduction zone can reduce the emissions by one third.
•0.1% sulfur-fuel rule can reduce the emissions remarkably by 93%.




Keywords

SO2; NOX; PM; Vessel operations; Emission Control Area



Abstract

This study measures the emissions of noxious gases (NG), such as SO2, NOX and PM, from vessel operations in a potential Emission Control Area in the Port of Incheon, Korea. This paper provides a detailed estimation of NG emissions based on the type of vessel and the movement of the vessel from the moment of its arrival (anchoring and maneuvering to approach a berth) to its docking, cargo handling, and departure. NG emissions are estimated by taking a bottom-up approach based on the vessels’ characteristics and using the data on all vessels processed by the Port of Incheon (POI) in 2012. The results show that the POI emitted 990 tons of SO2, 1551 tons of NOX and 142 tons of PM in 2012. 82% of SO2, 87% of NOX and 76% of PM emissions occur during the cruise phase. Moreover, the emissions of SO2, NOX and PM are considerable during the maneuvering phase showing 14%, 10% and 20%, respectively. Five groups of vessels, namely international ferries, full container vessels, general cargo vessels, car carriers and chemical tankers, comprise 70–76 % of the respective total emissions of NG. Assuming a future Emission Control Area in POI, the speed reduction measure and the effect of lowering the sulfur contents with two options of 1% and 0.1% are tested. The speed reduction zone can reduce the NG emissions by one third. Moreover, the 1% current rule can reduce the emissions by approximately 60% and the 0.1% rule can reduce the emissions remarkably by 93%.



Article Outline
1. Introduction
2. Methodology and data
3. Results and discussions
4. Conclusion
References




Figures

   

Fig. 1.

Estimation of the fuel consumption according to the ship type and movement (tons).


Fig. 2.

Estimation of SO2 emissions according to the ship type and movement (tons).


Fig. 3.

Estimation of NOX emissions according to the ship type and movement (tons).


Fig. 4.

Estimation of PM emissions according to the ship type and movement.



Tables


Table 1. Operating/design speed.

Table 2. Total emissions of SO2, NOX and PM over the vessel movement phase. Unit: ton.

Table 3. Reduction of NG emissions in a future ECA with various measures. Unit: ton.

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