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《城市交通》杂志
2013年 第4期
大型国际活动交通组织规划方法综述
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文章编号:1672-5328(2013)04-0081-15

Graham Currie1, Amer Shalaby2 著,赵 莉3 译
(1.交通运输研究所土木工程部,澳大利亚 墨尔本 3800;2.多伦多大学土木工程学院,加拿大 安大略省多伦多 M5S 2J7;3.中国城市规划设计研究院,北京 100037)

摘要:探讨夏季奥运会采用的交通组织规划方法,同时总结世界上最大规模的特殊活动——沙特阿拉伯麦加朝觐/副朝交通组织规划经验。每年一度的麦加朝觐已经延续几个世纪,在最近几十年人数持续增长,朝圣者已增至600万人,包括朝觐一周内300万人和斋月期间100万人。目前,这项活动是历史上规模最大且定期举行的特殊活动,其规模预计还将大幅增长。奥运会是世界上第二大特殊活动,每4年举办一次,在主办城市持续2周。通常奥运会主办城市自身的交通压力已经非常巨大,在奥运会期间同时还要额外满足4万名奥运官员和运动员以及800万名观众的出行需求。因此,奥运会交通组织规划对于保障赛事顺利开展至关重要。通过描述这两项活动的背景和交通供需特征,概述已有交通组织规划方法,旨在分析和总结大型活动交通组织规划的经验教训,探讨可供选择的规划策略。

关键词:交通组织规划;大型活动;交通需求管理;公共交通;奥运会;麦加朝觐/副朝

中图分类号:U491.1+2

文献标识码:A

Synthesis of Transport Planning Approaches for the World’s Largest Events

Written by Graham Currie1, Amer Shalaby2, Translated by Zhao Li3
(1.Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Transport Studies, Melbourne 3800, Australia; 2.Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 2J7, Canada; 3.China Academy of Urban Planning & Design, Beijing 100037, China)

Abstract:The Hajj/Umrah Pilgrimage has been held annually for many centuries. Major growth has occurred in recent decades with some 6 million visitors p.a. including 3 million during the week of the Hajj event and 1 million during Ramadan. These events now represent the largest regular special event in history and are expected to grow substantially into the future. SOG is probably the second largest regularly held major event, held over 2 weeks in major host cities every 4 years. Olympic host cities commonly already exhibit congested transport networks but must cope with over 40 000 Olympic officials and athletes in addition up to 8 million ticketed spectators. Olympic transport planning is a critical factor in games performance. Explores transport planning approaches adopted for the Summer Olympic Games (SOG) and identifies lessons learned for planning of the world’s largest regular special event; the Hajj/Umrah Pilgrimage in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Describes the context for each event and the nature of transport demand and supply and outlines the transport planning approaches used. A major aim is to synthesize lessons learned between events and to illustrate the performance of alternative strategies.

Keywords:transport planning; large event; Travel Demand Management; public transport; The Summer Olympic Games; Hajj and Umrah Pilgrimages