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《城市交通》杂志
2010年 第5期
城市空间结构和用地模式对城市交通的影响
点击量:6093

文章编号:1672-5328(2010)05-0028-08

丁成日
(马里兰大学,马里兰州学院公园市20742,美国)

摘要:就城市空间结构、土地利用模式与城市交通的关系展开探讨。首先分析单中心、多中心两种 典型城市空间结构对城市交通的 影响。指出单中心城市虽然造成 市中心交通压力较大,但有助于公共交通及TOD 模式的发展,有助于实施现代化的城市交通管理;而多中心城市结构并不一定能够降 低城市交通需求。通过分析东京的案例,说明城市交通流空间有序 和TOD发展模式对支撑特大城市 发展的重要性。探讨混合土地利用对城市交通的影响,指出其一方 面能够将社区交通需求“内部化”, 但另一方面可能诱发对外交通对 小汽车的依赖并增加出行距离,因此应在城市整体尺度上对其综合 影响进行实证分析。最后,结合中国城市的现状,对缓解城市交通问 题提出五点建议。

关键词:交通规划;城市交通;城市 空间结构;混合土地利用;理性 增长

中图分类号:U412.1+4

文献标识码:A

The Impact of Urban Spatial Structure and Land Use Pattern on Urban Transportation

DING Cheng-ri
(University of Maryland, College Park Maryland 20742, USA)

Abstract:Aiming at reviewing the relationship between urban spatial structure, land use pattern and urban transportation, the paper first analyzes the impact of two typical urban spatial structures on urban transportation: monocentric vs. polycentric city. Then the author points out that while the center of a monocentric city bears high traffic demand it is favorable to public transit and Transit Oriented Development (TOD) and to the advanced road management. A polycentric city may not always have a lower urban traffic demand. Through a case analysis of Tokyo, the paper illustrates the importance of spatial distribution of orderly traffic flow and TOD development in supporting the development of mega cities. By discussing the impact of mixed land use on urban transportation, the paper points out that while the mixed land use can internalize the demand within a community, it can also induce more automobile travel to areas outside mixed development communities, thus increase trip distance (or VMT). Therefore, as the paper concludes, the impact of mixed land use on transportation should be evaluated on a large spatial scale. Finally, the paper gives five suggestions on how to relief urban congestion based on the existing urban transportation conditions in China.

Keywords:transportation planning; urban transportation; urban spatial structure; mixed land use; smart growth