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《城市交通》杂志
2014年 第6期
停车收费合理定价 ——基于需求的旧金山停车定价模式评价
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文章编号: 1672-5328(2014)06-0082-13

Gregory Pierce1,Donald Shoup1 著,石飞2,王宇2,袁泉3 译
(1.美国加州大学城市规划系,洛杉矶CA 90095-1360;2.南京大学建筑与城市规划学院,江苏南京210008;3.美 国南加州大学公共政策学院,洛杉矶90089)

摘要: 除少数能够找到便宜停车位的幸运驾驶人外,价格过低和过度拥挤的路内停车位给每个人都 制造了难题;其他所有为寻找可用停车位而巡游的驾驶人因此浪费了时间和燃料,导致交通拥堵并 且污染空气。价格过高和占用率过低的路内停车位同样存在问题,当路内停车位闲置时,商家失去 潜在的顾客,员工失去工作,而城市失去税收。为了解决这些问题,旧金山启动了SFpark 项目,通 过价格调整实现每个街区有1~2 个可用停车位的目标。为了衡量价格如何影响路内停车位占用率, 根据项目第一年内超过5 000 次价格和占用率变动数据计算价格需求弹性。价格需求弹性的平均值 为-0.4,但是随时间、地点及其他因素大幅变化。在第一年内平均停车价格下降1%,因此,SFpark 调整了停车价格但总体上并未涨价。首次使用测量出的占用率估计路内停车的需求弹性,同时也首 次评价随时间和地点而变化的定价模式以用于路内停车管理。指出旧金山可以通过增加驾驶人对变 动停车价格的意识,减少残疾标志的滥用以及引入季节性价格调整来改进该项目。其他城市可吸纳 绩效停车定价作为拥挤收费的一种形式。

关键词: 绩效停车;价格需求弹性;最优定价

中图分类号: U491.7

文献标识码:A

Getting the Prices Right: An Evaluation of Pricing Parking by Demand in San Francisco

Written by Gregory Pierce1, Donald Shoup1, Translated by Shi Fei2,Wang Yu2, Yuan Quan3
(1. Department of Urban Planning, University of California, Los Angeles CA 90095-1360, USA; 2. School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Nanjing University, Nanjing Jiangsu 210008, China; 3. Sol Price School of Public Policy, University of Southern Califormia, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA)

Abstract: Underpriced and overcrowded curb parking creates problems for everyone except a few lucky drivers who find a cheap space; all the other drivers who cruise to find an open space waste time and fuel, congest traffi c, and pollute the air. Overpriced and underoccupied parking also creates problems; when curb spaces remain empty, merchants lose potential customers, workers lose jobs, and cities lose tax revenue. To address these problems, San Francisco has established SFpark, a program that adjusts prices to achieve availability of one or two open spaces per block. To measure how prices affected on-street occupancy, we calculated the price elasticity of demand revealed by over 5,000 price and occupancy changes during the program’s first year. Price elasticity has an average value of –0.4, but varies greatly by time of day, location, and several other factors. The average meter price fell 1% during the first year, so SFpark adjusted prices without increasing them overall. This study is the first to use measured occupancy to estimate the elasticity of demand for on- street parking. It also offers the first evaluation of pricing that varies by time of day and location to manage curb parking. San Francisco can improve its program by making drivers more aware of the variable prices, reducing the disabled placard abuse, and introducing seasonal price adjustments. Other cities can incorporate performance parking as a form of congestion pricing.

Keywords: performance parking; price elasticity of demand; optimal pricing